Svalbard

Publié le 24.07.2007

Situé entre 75 et 81° de latitude nord, l’archipel du Svalbard forme la pointe la plus septentrionale du royaume de Norvège.

PNG - 632.6 ko
Carte topographique de l’archipel du Svalbard
Crédit photo : Mysid
Source : Wikimedia Commons
Certains droits réservés : GNU Free Documentation License

Si l’archipel s’étend sur une surperficie de 63 000 km2 (proche de celle de l’Irlande), la plus grande des îles de cet archipel - le Spitzberg - s’étend à elle seule sur 39 000 km2.

Environ 2 400 habitants russes et norvégiens occupent ce territoire, dont les deux tiers sont constamment recouverts de glace.

Le Svalbard est un archipel situé à la limite de l’océan Arctique et de l’océan Atlantique, entre le Groenland à l’ouest, l’archipel François-Joseph à l’est et l’Europe continentale au sud. Il constitue la terre la plus septentrionale de la Norvège et l’un de ses territoires. À l’exception de neuf habitants sur l’île aux Ours (en norvégien, Bjørnøya) située plus au sud, ses 2 321 habitants se trouvent sur Spitzberg, la seule autre île habitée et la plus grande de l’archipel. Territoire norvégien autonome et démilitarisé, il n’est pas soumis à la fiscalité norvégienne. Sa superficie n’est pas incluse dans celle de la Norvège et il n’est membre ni de l’espace Schengen, ni de l’AELE (Association Européenne de Libre Echange). Le statut de neutralité des Svalbard permet à n’importe quel pays d’exploiter librement les ressources locales, ce que fit longuement l’URSS en établissant et en administrant une colonie russe dans l’archipel norvégien pour exploiter une mine. La population russe dépassait même la population norvégienne jusque dans les années 1990.

Voir l’article de Wikipedia

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